907 - 1125
The Liao Dynasty, sometimes also known as the Kingdom or Empire of the Khitan (Khitan Mongols), was founded by the Yelü family of the Khitan tribes in the final years of the Tang Dynasty, although Yelü Abaoji did not declare an era name until 916. Originally known as the Empire of the Khitan, Emperor Yelü Ruan officially adopted the name Great Liao or Liao Dynasty in 947.

The name of the empire was Khitan between 907 (at its founding) and 947, and again between 983 and 1066. The dynasty was contemporary with that ruled by the Song, in Kaifeng.

Liao ceramics are unique in form, glaze and design but are of an original Chinese technique though some forms show Tang influence. Liao ceramics are often monochrome white and black - similar to Cizhou wares of the Yuan Dynasty while others might bear a strong resemblance to Tang sancai lead glazes; the differences are in the shapes found.

The Liao Dynasty was annihilated by the Jin Dynasty in 1125. However, remnants led by Yelü Dashi established Xi (Western) Liao Dynasty 1125-1220, also known as Kara-Khitan Khanate, which survived until the arrival of Genghis Khan's Mongolian cavalry.